ADR-Daksh Survey Report for Bihar region

The Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) has conducted the largest ever survey in India with over 250,000 respondents in 530 Lok Sabha constituencies. The larger purpose of the survey is to highlight voter priorities so that elections in future are fought on voter issues, and more importantly, the manifestos of future Governments reflect voter priorities.

In Bihar, the purpose of the survey was multi-fold:

  1. To Rate MPs from the state on a Scale of 10
  2. To know Top 10 pressing issues for voters in the state
  3. To know voting behaviour of people
  4. To know what is the role of caste, religion, crime and money power in elections

The findings of the survey:

Rating of MPs : The voters have rated the performance of MPs as Good, Average or Bad on governance issues like employment, water, electricity, roads, food, education and health.

The average performance rating of 40 MPs from Bihar is 5.07 on a scale of 10Only two MPs from Bihar -- Om Prakash Yadav and Meira Kumar - have performed above average (Average Value of Performance = 6.67 point).

The highest scoring MP from Bihar is Independent MP Om Prakash Yadav from Siwan constituency with 7.56points (Above average), followed by Meira Kumar of Congress from Sasaram constituency with 6.75 points (Above average). The lowest scoring MP from Biharis Ram Sundar Das of JD (U) from Hajipur constituency with 3.79points.

The survey has also tried to identify the gap between voters' expectations on governance issues and performance of MPs on those issues. If the expectation of voters score is more than the performance score it means voters are unhappy. And if expectation of voters score is less than the performance of MPs then voters are actually happy.

Two of the MPs from Bihar have exceeded the expectation of the people.

Please see the Table I (A) for individual performance rating of all the MPs from Bihar. (The 'Performance of MP' column is the actual rating of the MPsand the 'Expectations of Voters on Governance issues' column shows people's expectations from their MPs on a scale of 10)Table I (B) is the graphical representation of 'Performance Ratings of MPs by Voters on Important Issues'.

Top 10 pressing issues for voters. To identify what are voter priorities in terms of governance issues like water, electricity, roads, food, education and health, a list of 30 items was given to voters and they were asked to rate whether a particular issue was High, Medium, or Low. This list was comprehensive as less than 5% said that there were "other issues" beyond the list.

In Bihar, Better electric supply, Better roads and Better hospitals / Primary Healthcare Centres are the Top 3 issues about which people are most concerned.  

Please seeTable II to know the overall 10 most pressing issues for the people of Bihar which they want their MPs to focus on, Table III for top 10 issues in rural areas of the state andTable IV to know top 10 issues in urban areas.

Table –I (A)

S.No.Name of the ConstituencyPartyName of MPPerformance of MPExpectations of voters on Governance IssuesAverage Performance
118-SiwanINDOm Prakash Yadav7.565.37Above Average
234-SasaramINCMeira Kumar6.755.43Above Average
36-MadhubaniBJPHukmadeo Narayan Yadav6.258.50Below Average
45-SitamarhiJD(U)Arjun Roy5.939.29Below Average
51-Valmiki NagarJD(U)Baidyanath Prasad Mahto5.547.78Below Average
638-GayaBJPHari Manjhi5.548.43Below Average
731-PataliputraJD(U)Ranjan Prasad Yadav5.489.07Below Average
828-MungerJD(U)Rajiv Ranjan Singh Alias Lalan Singh5.447.90Below Average
92-Paschim ChamparanBJPDr. Sanjay Jaiswal5.438.11Below Average
1016-VaishaliRJDRaghuvansh Prasad Singh5.379.45Below Average
1117-GopalganjJD(U)Purnmasi Ram5.367.63Below Average
123-Purvi ChamparanBJPRadha Mohan Singh5.348.20Below Average
1333-BuxarRJDJagada Nand Singh5.208.34Below Average
1413-MadhepuraJD(U)Sharad Yadav5.197.53Below Average
1525-KhagariaJD(U)Dinesh Chandra Yadav5.168.14Below Average
1630-Patna SahibBJPShatrughan Sinha5.138.25Below Average
1740-JamuiJD(U)Bhudeo Choudhary5.108.25Below Average
184-SheoharBJPRama Dev5.109.79Below Average
1929-NalandaJD(U)Kaushalendra Kumar5.088.39Below Average
2027-BankaINDPUTUL KUMARI5.089.73Below Average
218-SupaulJD(U)Vishwa Mohan Kumar5.057.21Below Average
2236-JahanabadJD(U)Jagdish Sharma5.059.89Below Average
2339-NawadaBJPBhola Singh5.028.48Below Average
247-JhanjharpurJD(U)Mangani Lal Mandal5.019.21Below Average
2512-PurniaBJPUday Singh Alias Pappu Singh5.018.48Below Average
2619-MaharajganjRJDPrabhunath Singh4.987.72Below Average
2710-KishanganjINCMohammad Asrarul Haque4.928.33Below Average
2820-SaranRJDLalu Prasad4.807.27Below Average
2915-MuzaffarpurJD(U)Captain Jai Narayan Prasad Nishad4.759.28Below Average
3022-UjiarpurJD(U)Aswamedh Dev4.709.01Below Average
3123-SamastipurJD(U)Maheshwar Hazari4.709.18Below Average
3214-DarbhangaBJPKirti Azad4.689.23Below Average
3332-ArrahJD(U)Meena Singh4.578.68Below Average
3411-KatiharBJPNikhil Kumar Choudhary4.569.17Below Average
3537-AurangabadJD(U)Sushil Kumar Singh4.267.72Below Average
3635-KarakatJD(U)Mahabali Singh4.228.26Below Average
379-ArariaBJPPradeep Kumar Singh4.007.28Below Average
3826-BhagalpurBJPSyed Shahnawaz Hussain3.989.22Below Average
3924-BegusaraiJD(U)Dr. Monazir Hassan3.889.33Below Average
4021-HajipurJD(U)Ram Sundar Das3.799.78Below Average
 Bihar  5.078.41 

Table –I (B)

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Overall Top 10 issues for Bihar:

Table –II

1Better electric supply8.60
2Better roads8.59
3Better hospitals / Primary Healthcare Centres8.59
4Drinking water8.54
5Better schools8.54
6Subsidized food distribution8.53
7Better public transport8.50
8Better employment opportunities8.49
9Better Law and Order / Policing8.49
10Strong Defence/Military8.48

Top 10 issues in Rural areas:

Table –III

1Better electric supply8.64
2Better roads8.64
3Better hospitals / Primary Healthcare Centres8.61
4Drinking water8.58
5Better schools8.56
6Subsidized food distribution8.54
7Better public transport8.53
8Strong Defence/Military8.53
9Better Law and Order / Policing8.53
10Better employment opportunities8.52

Top 10 issues in Urban areas:

Table –IV

1Subsidized food distribution8.38
2Better schools8.37
3Better hospitals / Primary Healthcare Centres8.35
4Eradication of Corruption8.35
5Better employment opportunities8.27
6Better public transport8.24
7Better electric supply8.22
8Drinking water8.17
9Trustworthiness of MP8.16
10Better roads8.14

The voting behavior of people in Bihar

The survey tried to identify the important factors that people take into account before voting for a particular Candidate. Issue like whether the Candidate matters the most or his Political Party or other issues like caste/religion of the Candidate, PM Candidate of the party, and Distribution of 'gifts' etc. are more important?

People in Bihar gave moreimportance to the candidate himself than the party of the candidate. The PM candidate of the party and Caste/Religion of the candidate were the 3rd and 4th most important factors which voters consider before voting.

Please see the Table V to find out important factors which people consider before voting for a candidate and what weightage (points) they give to each of the factors:

Table –V (A)

StateBihar
Why people vote:
Party5.73
Candidate7.74
PM Candidate5.68
Caste/religion4.30
Distribution of 'gifts'3.95
Yes/No "knowledge and opinion questions": Do you know
Do you know "Gifts" for vote is illegal72.90%
Do you know Candidates distributing 'gifts'16.18%
Do you know You can get candidate criminal record38.90%
Why do people vote for those with serious criminal records:
Candidate does good work67.63%
Powerful Candidate28.63%
Spending in elections32.53%
Cases not serious33.79%
Voters don't know29.85%
Caste or religion19.69%

Table –V (B)

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Role of caste, religion, crime and money power in elections.  The survey also tried to identify if voters are aware of the use of money and muscle power in elections. Specifically, whether they are aware of distribution of gifts and money by candidates before polls or they have the knowledge about the criminal record of their candidates.

It was observed that nearly 73 per cent of people in Bihar is well aware that distribution of gifts and money by candidates ahead of elections is illegal. However, only 39 per cent of people knew that they can get an information about the criminal records of their candidates easily.

What is also observed that over 68 per cent people in Bihar ignore the criminal record of their candidates because they feel such candidates have done "good work."Whereas around 20 per cent of people in Bihar vote for candidates facing criminal charges because they were of their own caste/ religion. Around 33 per cent people also vote for criminal candidates because they spend a lot during the elections.

Please see Table VI to know what percentage of people are aware of the use of money and muscle power in elections.

Table –VI (A)

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Table –VI (B)

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